Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Information architecture

Is your site organized such that everyone can navigate it easily?

Why it’s important: Beth has a lower tech literacy level and needs a site’s layout to be clear.

View more

Julian has low vision and uses a screen reader to navigate the web. Kendra has a newborn and her attention is often divided; she needs to be able to understand a site’s contents at a glance.

Lyle is undergoing a crisis and needs to quickly find just the content pertinent to him.

Steps to take

  • Write descriptive page titles. Users who rely on assistive technologies like screen readers may not be able to use visual cues to determine a page’s purpose. Make sure your page titles concisely convey each page’s focus.
  • Make sure users can navigate a site in multiple ways. Some strategies include providing a table of contents, providing a sitemap, linking between pages, and including sitewide search.
  • Indicate changes in language (for example, when including a foreign word in a predominantly English text). This will help people using screen readers, people with cognitive disabilities, and folks using braille translation software to fully understand your content.
  • Use a screen reader or simulator to make sure you can land on controls and that they’re announcing things as they should.
  • Determine whether the HTML document has a language attribute so that screen readers will read it with the correct accent and pronunciation. For example: <html lang="en">. (Note: If you’re not comfortable taking this step, feel free to ask another designer on your project team to help.)
  • If forms are present, make sure the screen reader reads labels and instructions.
    • Turn VoiceOver on: command (⌘) + F5
    • Go into web area: control + alt + shift + down arrow (⬇)
    • Navigate right: control + alt + right arrow (➡️️)
    • Navigate by headings: control + alt + command (⌘) + H
    • Click: control + alt + spacebar

    Use rotor to browse pages. The rotor lists common elements like headings, links, and images, and lets you navigate directly to the element of your choosing.

    • Turn on rotor: control + alt + U
    • Navigate rotor: left and right, up and down arrows

WCAG 2.0 references